3. The word “implement” in the passage is closest in meaning to 

  • A. reduce the cost of
  • B. put into effect
  • C. give consideration to 
  • D. Improve

4. Paragraph 4 suggests that all of the following were among the largest users of conservation tillage during the late 1990s EXCEPT:

  • A. Argentina
  • B. Europe
  • C. Canada
  • D. Brazil

Paragraph 4

In the United States, where farmers during the 1990s were required to implement a soil-conservation plan on erodible cropland to be eligible for crop price supports, the no-till area went from 7 million hectares in 1990 to nearly 21 million hectares (51 million acres) in 2000, tripling within a decade. An additional 23 million hectares were minimum-tilled, for a total of 44 million hectares of conservation tillage. This total included 37 percent of the corn crop, 57 percent of soybeans, and 30 percent of the wheat. Outside the United States, data for crop year 1998-1999 show Brazil using conservation tillage on 11 million hectares and Argentina on 7 million hectares. Canada, using conservation tillage on 4 million hectares, rounds out the “big four”. And now no-till farming is catching on in Europe, Africa, and Asia. In addition to reducing soil losses, minimum-till and no-till practices also help retain water and reduce energy use.


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