Paragraph 1: Two species of deer have been prevalent in the Puget Sound area of Washington State in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The black-tailed deer, a lowland, west-side cousin of the mule deer of eastern Washington, is now the most common. The other species, the Columbian white-tailed deer, in earlier times was common in the open prairie country; it is now restricted to the low, marshy islands and flood plains along the lower Columbia River.
According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of the white-tailed deer of Puget Sound?
○It is native to lowlands and marshes.
○It is more closely related to the mule deer of eastern Washington than to other types of deer.
○It has replaced the black-tailed deer in the open prairie.
○It no longer lives in a particular type of habitat that it once occupied.
白痴的不能再白痴的一道题目。根据题目所问非常容易就找到本段最后一句话。这个句子论述了此种deer早年生活在open prairie country，现在却仅生活在low marshy islands和flood plains地区，也就是以前和现在居住地产生了差异。答案是D。
Paragraph 4: Waterlogged soils occur in areas that are flat or have poor drainage. These soils usually contain large amounts of clay and easily become water-saturated. Air cannot penetrate between the soil particles, making the soil oxygen-poor. By contrast, dry soils are sandy and porous, their coarse textures permitting water to drain rapidly. Sandy soils are prone to the leaching of nutrients and minerals and so tend to be nutritionally poor. Though most savannas are found on sites with poor soils (because of either moisture conditions or nutrient levels of both), poor soils can and do support lush rain forest.
According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true of waterlogged soils?
O Their upper layers are usually sandy and porous.
O They cannot support savannas.
O They contain little oxygen.
O They are prone to the leaching of nutrients and minerals.
题目问“下列哪个关于waterlogged soils是正确的？”，关键词即为waterlogged soils。简单到爆，直接找到第一句话。根据第一句话得到的信息，我们得知关于这种soil的第一个信息点是“此种soil出现在flat或者poor drainage的地区”。但是，并没有选项与之对应，所以无法无法得出答案，只得继续阅读。第二句得到的信息同样无法对应答案。第三句说“空气无法进入这种土壤中，所以这种土壤就比较缺乏oxygen”。根据该内容，C选项的“contain little oxygen”就是正确答案。
Paragraph 1: Evolutionary biologists believe that speciation, the formation of a new species, often begins when some kind of physical barrier arises and divides a population of a single species into separate subpopulations. Physical separation between subpopulations promotes the formation of new species because once the members of one subpopulation can no longer mate with members of another subpopulation, they cannot exchange variant genes that arise in one of the subpopulations. In the absence of gene flow between the subpopulations, genetic differences between the groups begin to accumulate. Eventually the subpopulations become so genetically distinct that they cannot interbreed even if the physical barriers between them were removed. At this point the subpopulations have evolved into distinct species. This route to speciation is known as allopatry (“allo-” means “different”, and “patria” means “homeland”).
According to paragraph 1, allopatric speciation involves which of the following?
O The division of a population into subspecies
O The reuniting of separated populations after they have become distinct species
O The movement of a population to a new homeland
O The absence of gene flow between subpopulations
回过头再来看这道题，正确答案D对应的信息点出现在段落中间这句话“In the absence of…”。
Paragraph 2: During wakefulness, breathing is controlled by two interacting systems. The first is an automatic, metabolic system whose control is centered in the brain stem. It subconsciously adjusts breathing rate and depth in order to regulate the levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2), and the acid-base ratio in the blood. The second system is the voluntary, behavioral system. Its control center is based in the forebrain, and it regulates breathing for use in speech, singing, sighing, and so on. It is capable of ignoring or overriding the automatic, metabolic system and produces an irregular pattern of breathing.
According to paragraph 2, all of the following are true of the voluntary breathing system EXCEPT:
○It has its control center in the brain stem.
○It controls breathing for a number of activities during wakefulness.
○It is able to bypass the automatic system.
○It produces an irregular breathing pattern.
Paragraph 5: Other respiratory regulating mechanisms apparently cease functioning during sleep. For example, during wakefulness there is an immediate, automatic, adaptive increase in breathing effort when inhaling is made more difficult (such as breathing through a restrictive face mask). This reflexive adjustment is totally absent during NREM sleep. Only after several inadequate breaths under such conditions, resulting in the considerable elevation of carbon dioxide and reduction of oxygen in the blood, is breathing effort adjusted. Finally, the coughing reflex in reaction to irritants in the airway produces not a cough during sleep but a cessation of breathing. If the irritation is severe enough, a sleeping person will arouse, clear the airway, then resume breathing and likely return to sleep.
According to paragraph 5, what happens during NREM sleep when inhaling is difficult?
○There is an immediate, automatic, adaptive increase in breathing effort.
○The sleeping person takes several inadequate breaths before the breathing effort is adjusted.
○The coughing reflex causes the breathing effort to adjust.
○The airways become cleared as the blood removes irritants.
题目所问内容为“在NREM睡眠过程中，吸气特别困难时会发生什么？”本段第二句话描述了“苏醒时，吸气特别困难的情况下”所发生的内容，但是并未提到NREM sleep的情况。下一句说“在NREM sleep时，这种调节反射是不存在的”，依旧没有出现题目所问内容。紧接着这句话中的一个代词“such conditions”非常关键，三句话连在一起读一下会发现，such conditions指的应该就是“NREM sleep时，inhaling很困难，并且wakefulness时起作用的功能还不好使”的这个状态。所以，很自然的根据这句话就可以选出正确答案B。
Paragraph 2: It is difficult to isolate the factors that led to the next development—the emergence of urban settlements. The earliest, that of Eridu, about 4500 B.C.E., and Uruk, a thousand years later, center on impressive temple complexes built of mud brick. In some way, the elite had associated themselves with the power of the gods. Uruk, for instance, had two patron gods—Anu, the god of the sky and sovereign of all other gods, and Inanna, a goddess of love and war—and there were other patrons of different cities. Human beings were at their mercy. The biblical story of the Flood may originate in Sumer. In the earliest version, the gods destroy the human race because its clamor had been so disturbing to them.
According to paragraph 2, Eridu and Uruk are examples of urban settlements that
○ lacked the features usually found in other early urban settlements
○ developed around religious buildings
○ grew much more rapidly than most of the urban settlements found in Sumer
○ were mysteriously destroyed and abandoned
Paragraph 3: Geographic isolation also can proceed slowly, over great spans of time. We find evidence of such extended events in the fossil record, which affords glimpses into the breakup of formerly continuous environments. For example, during past ice ages, glaciers advanced down through North America and Europe and gradually cut off parts of populations from one another. When the glaciers retreated, the separated populations of plants and animals came into contact again. Some groups that had descended from the same parent population were no longer reproductively compatible— they had evolved into separate species. In other groups, however, genetic divergences had not proceeded so far, and the descendants could still interbreed— for them, reproductive isolation was not completed, and so speciation had not occurred.
According to paragraph 3, separation of subpopulations by glaciers resulted in speciation in those groups of plants and animals that
O were reproductively isolated even after the glaciers disappeared
O had adjusted to the old conditions caused by the glaciers
O were able to survive being separated from their parent population
O had experienced some genetic divergences from their parent population