Paragraph 2: Stories (myths) may then grow up around a ritual. Frequently the myths include representatives of those supernatural forces that the rites celebrate or hope to influence. Performers may wear costumes and masks to represent the mythical characters or supernatural forces in the rituals or in accompanying
celebrations. As a person becomes more sophisticated, its conceptions of supernatural forces and causal relationships may change. As a result, it may abandon or modify some rites. But the myths that have grown up around the rites may
continue as part of the group’s oral tradition and may even come to be acted out under conditions divorced from these rites. When this occurs, the first step has been taken toward theater as an autonomous activity, and thereafter entertainment and aesthetic values may gradually replace the former mystical and socially efficacious concerns.
7. According to paragraph 2, what may cause societies to abandon certain rites?
○Emphasizing theater as entertainment
○Developing a new understanding of why events occur
○Finding a more sophisticated way of representing mythical characters
○Moving from a primarily oral tradition to a more written tradition
Paragraph 1: The transition from forest to treeless tundra on a mountain slope is often a dramatic one. Within a vertical distance of just a few tens of meters, trees disappear as a life-form and are replaced by low shrubs, herbs, and grasses. This rapid zone of transition is called the upper timberline or tree line. In many semiarid areas there is also a lower timberline where the forest passes into steppe or desert at its lower edge, usually because of a lack of moisture.
2. Where is the lower timberline mentioned in paragraph 1 likely to be found?
○In an area that has little water
○In an area that has little sunlight
○Above a transition area
○On a mountain that has on upper timberline.
Paragraph 1: Earth’s internal heat, fueled by radioactivity, provides the energy for plate tectonics and continental drift, mountain building, and earthquakes. It can also be harnessed to drive electric generators and heat homes. Geothermal energy becomes available in a practical form when underground heat is transferred by water that is heated as it passes through a subsurface region of hot rocks (a heat reservoir) that may be hundreds or thousands of feet deep. The water is usually naturally occurring groundwater that seeps down along fractures in the rock; less typically, the water is artificially introduced by being pumped down from the surface. The water is brought to the surface, as a liquid or steam, through holes drilled for the purpose.
1.According to the processes described in paragraph 1, what is the relationship between radioactivity and the steam produced by geothermal heat?
OGeothermally heated steam is produced when water is exposed to radioactivity deep underground.
OWhen water is introduced into holes drilled thousands of feet in the ground, it becomes radioactive and turns to steam.
ORadioactivity heats Earth’s interior rock, which in turn can heat water to the point it becomes steam.
OWhen a reservoir of steam in subsurface rock is produced by radioactivity, it is said to be geothermally heated.
Paragraph 6: With the advent of projection, the viewer’s relationship with the image was no longer private, as it had been with earlier peepshow devices such as the Kinetoscope and the
Mutoscope, which was a similar machine that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic cards instead of on strips of celluloid. It suddenly became public—an experience that the viewer shared with dozens, scores, and even hundreds of others. At the same time, the image that the spectator looked at expanded from the minuscule peepshow dimensions of 1 or 2 inches (in height) to the life-size proportions of 6 or 9 feet.
8. Which of the following is mentioned in paragraph 6 as one of the ways the Mutoscope differed from the Kinetoscope?
○Sound and motion were simultaneously produced in the Mutoscope.
○More than one person could view the images at the same time with the Mutoscope.
○The Mutoscope was a less sophisticated earlier prototype of the Kinetoscope.
○A different type of material was used to produce the images used in the Mutoscope.
Paragraph 6: In the face of the upcoming water supply crisis, a number of grandiose schemes have been developed to transport vast quantities of water by canal or pipeline from the Mississippi, the Missouri, or the Arkansas rivers. Unfortunately, the cost of water obtained through any of these schemes would increase pumping costs at least tenfold, making the cost of irrigated agricultural products from the region uncompetitive on the national and international markets. Somewhat more promising have been recent experiments for releasing capillary water (water in the soil) above the water table by injecting compressed air into the ground. Even if this process proves successful, however, it would almost triple water costs. Genetic engineering also may provide a partial solution, as new strains of drought-resistant crops continue to be developed. Whatever the final answer to the water crisis may be, it is evident that within the High Plains, irrigation water will never again be the abundant, inexpensive resource it was during the agricultural boom years of the mid-twentieth century.
12．According to paragraph 6, what is the main disadvantage of the proposed plans to transport river water to the High Plains?
○The rivers cannot supply sufficient water for the farmer’s needs.
○Increased irrigation costs would make the products too expensive.
○The costs of using capillary water for irrigation will increase.
○Farmers will be forced to switch to genetically engineered crops.