HUGEdu托福入学测试

Welcome to HUGEdu TOEFL reading model test.

IN THIS TEST, YOU WILL BE GIVEN 3 READING PASSAGES, YOU WILL HAVE 20 MINUTES TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS BELOW EACH READING PASSAGE.
YOU MAY TAKE NOTES WHILE YOU ARE READING, YOU MAY USE YOUR NOTES WHILE YOU ARE ANSWERING YOUR QUESTIONS. 
NOW PLEASE TAKE OUT A FEW PIECES OF SCRATCH PAPER AND WRITE YOUR NOTES OR ANSWER CHOICES ON THEM.

You have 60 minutes to answer the test.


Begin reading now:

Reading Passage I

Trade and the Ancient Middle East

Trade was the mainstay of the urban economy in the Middle East, as caravans negotiated the surrounding desert, restricted only by access to water and by mountain ranges. This has been so since ancient times, partly due to the geology of the area, which is mostly limestone and sandstone, with few deposits of metallic ore and other useful materials. Ancient demands for obsidian (a black volcanic rock useful for making mirrors and tools) led to trade with Armenia to the north, while jade for cutting tools was brought from Turkistan, and the precious stone lapis lazuli was imported from Afghanistan. One can trace such expeditions back to ancient Sumeria, the earliest known Middle Eastern civilization. Records show merchant caravans and trading posts set up by the Sumerians in the surrounding mountains and deserts of Persia and Arabia, where they traded grain for raw materials, such as timber and stones, as well as for metals and gems.

Reliance on trade had several important consequences. Production was generally in the hands of skilled individual artisans doing piecework under the tutelage of a master who was also the shop owner. In these shops differences of rank were blurred as artisans and masters labored side by side in the same modest establishment, were usually members of the same guild and religious sect, lived in the same neighborhoods, and often had assumed (or real) kinship relationships. The worker was bound to the master by a mutual contract that either one could repudiate, and the relationship was conceptualized as one of partnership.

This mode of craft production favored the growth of self-governing and ideologically egalitarian craft guilds everywhere in the Middle Eastern city. These were essentially professional associations that provided for the mutual aid and protection of their members, and allowed for the maintenance of professional standards. The growth of independent guilds was furthered by the fact that surplus was not a result of domestic craft production but resulted primarily from international trading; the government left working people to govern themselves, much as shepherds of tribal confederacies were left alone by their leaders. In the multiplicity of small-scale local egalitarian or quasi-egalitarian organizations for fellowship, worship, and production that flourished in this laissez-faire environment, individuals could interact with one another within a community of harmony and ideological equality, following their own popularly elected leaders and governing themselves by shared consensus while minimizing distinctions of wealth and power.

The mercantile economy was also characterized by a peculiar moral stance that is typical of people who live by trade—an attitude that is individualistic, calculating, risk taking, and adaptive to circumstances. As among tribes people, personal relationships and a careful weighing of character have always been crucial in a mercantile economy with little regulation, where one’s word is one’s bond and where informal ties of trust cement together an international trade network. Nor have merchants and artisans ever had much tolerance for aristocratic professions of moral superiority, favoring instead an egalitarian ethic of the open market, where steady hard work, the loyalty of one’s fellows, and entrepreneurial skill make all the difference. And, like the pastoralists, Middle Eastern merchants and artisans unhappy with their environment could simply pack up and leave for greener pastures—an act of self-assertion wholly impossible in most other civilizations throughout history.

Dependence on long-distance trade also meant that the great empires of the Middle East were built both literally and figuratively on shifting sand. The central state, though often very rich and very populous, was intrinsically fragile, since the development of new international trade routes could undermine the monetary base and erode state power, as occurred when European seafarers circumvented Middle Eastern merchants after Vasco da Gama’s voyage around Africa in the late fifteenth century opened up a southern route. The ecology of the region also permitted armed predators to prowl the surrounding barrens, which were almost impossible for a state to control. Peripheral peoples therefore had a great advantage in their dealings with the center, making government authority insecure and anxious.

Paragraph 1: Trade was the mainstay of the urban economy in the Middle East, as caravans negotiated the surrounding desert, restricted only by access to water and by mountain ranges. This has been so since ancient times, partly due to the geology of the area, which is mostly limestone and sandstone, with few deposits of metallic ore and other useful materials Ancient demands for obsidian (a black volcanic rock useful for making mirrors and tools) led to trade with Armenia to the north, while jade for cutting tools was brought from Turkistan, and the precious stone lapis lazuli was imported from Afghanistan. One can trace such expeditions back to ancient Sumeria, the earliest known Middle Eastern civilization. Records show merchant caravans and trading posts set up by the Sumerians in the surrounding mountains and deserts of Persia and Arabia, where they traded grain for raw materials, such as timber and stones, as well as for metals and gems.

    1. According to paragraph 1, why has trade been so important throughout the history of the Middle East

  • The rare and valuable metals and stones found in Middle Eastern deserts have always been in high demand in surrounding areas.
  • Growing conditions throughout the Middle East are generally poor, forcing Middle Eastern people to depend on imported grain.
  • Many useful and decorative raw materials cannot be found naturally in the Middle East but are available from neighboring regions.
  • Frequent travel, due to limited water supplies in the Middle East, created many opportunities for trade with neighboring societies.

    Paragraph 2: Reliance on trade had several important consequences. Production was generally in the hands of skilled individual artisans doing piecework under the tutelage of a master who was also the shop owner. In these shops differences of rank were blurred as artisans and masters labored side by side in the same modest establishment, were usually members of the same guild and religious sect, lived in the same neighborhoods, and often had assumed (or real) kinship relationships. The worker was bound to the master by a mutual contract that either one could repudiate, and the relationship was conceptualized as one of partnership.

    2. The word “repudiate” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • respect
  • reject
  • review 
  • revise

    3. According to paragraph 2, how did Middle Eastern shop owners treat their workers?

  •  Workers were ranked according to their skill level, with the most-experienced artisans becoming partial owners of the shop.
  • Shop owners treated different workers differently depending on how much the workers had in common with their masters.
  • Workers were bound to their masters by unbreakable contracts that strictly defined the terms of their partnership.
  • The shop owner worked alongside the workers and often considered them partner and members of the family.

Paragraph 3: This mode of craft production favored the growth of self-governing and ideologically egalitarian craft guilds everywhere in the Middle Eastern city. These were essentially professional associations that provided for the mutual aid and protection of their members, and allowed for the maintenance of professional standards. The growth of independent guilds was furthered by the fact that surplus was not a result of domestic craft production but resulted primarily from international trading; the government left working people to govern themselves, much as shepherds of tribal confederacies were left alone by their leaders. In the multiplicity of small-scale local egalitarian or quasi-egalitarian organizations for fellowship, worship, and production that flourished in this laissez-faire environment, individuals could interact with one another within a community of harmony and ideological equality, following their own popularly elected leaders and governing themselves by shared consensus while minimizing distinctions of wealth and power.

4. The author includes the information that surplus was not a result of domestic craft production but resulted primarily from international trading in order to

  • support the claim that the mode of production made possible by the craft guilds w very good for trade
  • contrast the economic base of the city government with that of the tribal confederacies
  • provide a reason why the government allowed the guilds to be self-controlled
  • suggest that the government was missing out on a valuable opportunity to tax the guilds

5. According to paragraph 3, all of the following are true of the Middle Eastern craft guilds EXCEPT:

  • The guilds were created to support workers and to uphold principles of high-quality craft production.
  • Each guild was very large and included members from a broad geographic area.
  • The leaders of the guilds were chosen by popular vote.
  • All guild members were treated as equals.

6. The word “consensus” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • authority
  • responsibility
  • custom
  • agreement

Paragraph 4: The mercantile economy was also characterized by a peculiar moral stance that is typical of people who live by trade—an attitude that is individualistic, calculating, risk taking, and adaptive to circumstances. As among tribes people, personal relationships and a careful weighing of character have always been crucial in a mercantile economy with little regulation, where one’s word is one’s bond and where informal ties of trust cement together an international trade network. Nor have merchants and artisans ever had much tolerance for aristocratic professions of moral superiority, favoring instead an egalitarian ethic of the open market, where steady hard work, the loyalty of one’s fellows, and entrepreneurial skill make all the difference. And, like the pastoralists, Middle Eastern merchants and artisans unhappy with their environment could simply pack up and leave for greener pastures—an act of self-assertion wholly impossible in most other civilizations throughout history.

7. According to paragraph 4, which of the following was NOT necessary for success in the mercantile economy?

  • Good business sense
  • Reliable associates
  • Family wealth
  • Constant effort

8. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  • Tribes people were comfortable forming personal relationships with merchants, who, like them, were bound by their promises to one another.
  • Because trade was not formally regulated, merchants were careful about whom they trusted and often conducted business with people they knew personally.
  • While trade among merchants relied somewhat on regulation, among tribes people trade was based on personal relationships and careful character evaluation.
  • Because tribes people were bound only by their promises to one another, personal relationships were formed only after careful weighing of character.

9. The word “ethic” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • set of moral principles
  • division of labor
  • economic system 
  • test of character

10. According to paragraph 4, what choice did Middle Eastern merchants and artisans have that many other people have not had?

  • If they were unhappy in the mercantile environment, they could draw on personal connections to find a different kind of work.
  • They were allowed to assert their opinions without having to listen to aristocratic professions of moral superiority.
  • Following the example of the pastoralists, they could demand, and receive, better working conditions.
  • If they didn’t like their environment, they could move somewhere else.

Paragraph 5: Dependence on long-distance trade also meant that the great empires of the Middle East were built both literally and figuratively on shifting sand. The central state, though often very rich and very populous, was intrinsically fragile, since the development of new international trade routes could undermine the monetary base and erode state power, as occurred when European seafarers circumvented Middle Eastern merchants after Vasco da Gama’s voyage around Africa in the late fifteenth century opened up a southern route. The ecology of the region also permitted armed predators to prowl the surrounding barrens, which were almost impossible for a state to control. Peripheral peoples therefore had a great advantage in their dealings with the center, making government authority insecure and anxious.

11. The word “intrinsically” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • fundamentally 
  • surprisingly 
  • consequently
  • particularly

12.In paragraph 5, why does the author mention the new trade route opened up by Vasco da Gama’s fifteenth century voyage around Africa?

  • To provide evidence that European seafarers took every opportunity to bypass Middle Eastern merchants
  • To present an instance in which Middle Eastern states lost money and power because of their reliance on long-distance trade
  • To argue this new route became necessary when European seafarers wanted to avoid Middle Eastern states whose central power had begun to erode
  • To explain how da Gama helped European traders avoid the dangerous predators prowling the areas surrounding Middle Eastern cities

Paragraph2: Reliance on trade had several important consequences. ■Production was generally in the hands of skilled individual artisans doing piecework under the tutelage of a master who was also the shop owner. ■In these shops differences of rank were blurred as artisans and masters labored side by side in the same modest establishment, were usually members of the same guild and religious sect, lived in the same neighborhoods, and often had assumed (or real) kinship relationships. ■The worker was bound to the master by a mutual contract that either one could repudiate, and the relationship was conceptualized as one of partnership. ■

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

For one thing, it created a demand for finished goods to be sold both locally and abroad.

Where would the sentence best fit?

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Since ancient times. reliance on trade has shaped the culture and organizational structure of Middle Eastern societies.

    ●

    ●

    ●

Answer Choices

  • 1. Persian and Arabian merchants traveled great distances to sell their finished goods at the marketplaces of ancient Sumeria.
  • 2. Revenue from trade was unevenly distributed, causing Middle Eastern societies to be characterized by growing distinctions in wealth and power.
  • 3. Qualities that were valued in the mercantile economy included individualism, hard work, loyalty, and the willingness to take risks.
  • 4. As production increased, centralized control over production also increased, leading in turn to more-centralized control over fellowship and worship.
  • 5. Crafts were produced by skilled artisans working in close, egalitarian relationships with their masters and other fellow guild members.
  • 6. The stability of Middle Eastern governments was threatened by their lack of control over international trade patterns and over their own peripheral territories.

The end of the 1st reading passage.


Reading Passage II

The Achievement of Brazilian Independence

In contrast to the political anarchy , economic dislocation, and military destruction in Spanish America, Brazil’s drive toward independence from Portugal proceeded as a relatively bloodless transition between 1808 and 1822. The idea of Brazilian independence first arose in the late eighteenth century as a Brazilian reaction to the Portuguese policy of tightening political and economic control over the colony in the interests of the mother country. The first significant conspiracy against Portuguese rule was organized from 1788-1799 in the province of Minas Gerais, where rigid governmental control over the production and prices of gold and diamonds, as well as heavy taxes, caused much discontent. But this conspiracy never went beyond the stage of discussion and was easily discovered and crushed.Other conspiracies in the late eighteenth century as well as a brief revolt in 1817 reflected the influence of republican ideas over sections of the elite and even the lower strata of urban society. All proved abortive or were soon crushed.Were it not for an accident of European history, the independence of Brazil might have been long delayed.

The French invasion of Portugal in 1807 followed by the flight of the Portuguese court (sovereign and government officers) to Rio de Janeiro brought large benefits to Brazil.Indeed, the transfer of the court in effect signified achievement of Brazilian independence. The Portuguese prince and future King Joao VI opened Brazil’s ports to the trade of friendly nations, permitted the rise of local industries, and founded the Bank of Brazil. In 1815 he elevated Brazil to the legal status of a kingdom coequal with Portugal. ln one sense, however, Brazil’s new status signified the substitution of one dependence for another. Freed from Portuguese control, Brazil came under the economic dominance of England, which obtained major tariff concessions and other privileges by the Strangford Treaty of 1810 between Portugal and Great Britain. The treaty provided for the importation of British manufactures into Brazil and the export of Brazilian agricultural produce to Great Britain.One result was an influx of cheap machine-made goods that swamped the handicrafts industry of the country.

Brazilian elites took satisfaction in Brazil’s new role and the growth of educational, cultural, and economic opportunities for their class. But the feeling was mixed with resentment toward the thousands of Portuguese courtiers (officials) and hangers-on who came with the court and who competed with Brazilians for jobs and favors. Thus, the change in the status of Brazil sharpened the conflict between Portuguese elites born in Brazil and elites born in Portugal and loyal to the Portuguese crown.

The event that precipitated the break with the mother country was the revolution of 1820 in Portugal. The Portuguese revolutionaries framed a liberal constitution for the kingdom, but they were conservative or reactionary in relation to Brazil. They demanded the immediate return of King Joao to Lisbon, an end to the system of dual monarchy that he had devised, and the restoration of the Portuguese commercial monopoly. Timid and vacillating, King Joao did not know which way to turn. Under the pressure of his courtiers, who hungered to return to Portugal and their lost estates, he finally approved the new constitution and sailed for Portugal. He left behind him, however, his son and heir, Pedro, and in a private letter advised him that in the event the Brazilians should demand independence, he should assume leadership of the movement and set the crown of Brazil on his head.

Soon it became clear that the Portuguese parliamentintended to set the clock back by abrogating all the liberties and concessions won by Brazil since 1808. One of its decrees insisted on the immediate return of Pedro from Brazil. The pace of events moved more rapidly in 1822. On January 9, urged on by Brazilian advisers who perceived a golden opportunity to make an orderly transition to independence without the intervention of the masses, Pedro refused an order from the parliament to return to Portugal, saying famously, “l remain.” On September 7, regarded by all Brazilians as Independence Day, he issued the even more celebrated proclamation, “Independence or death!” In December 1822, having overcome slight resistance by Portuguese troops, Dom Pedro was formally proclaimed constitutional Emperor of Brazil.

Paragraph 1: In contrast to the political anarchy , economic dislocation, and military destruction in Spanish America, Brazil’s drive toward independence from Portugal proceeded as a relatively bloodless transition between 1808 and 1822. The idea of Brazilian independence first arose in the late eighteenth century as a Brazilian reaction to the Portuguese policy of tightening political and economic control over the colony in the interests of the mother country. The first significant conspiracy against Portuguese rule was organized from 1788-1799 in the province of Minas Gerais, where rigid governmental control over the production and prices of gold and diamonds, as well as heavy taxes, caused much discontent. But this conspiracy never went beyond the stage of discussion and was easily discovered and crushed.Other conspiracies in the late eighteenth century as well as a brief revolt in 1817 reflected the influence of republican ideas over sections of the elite and even the lower strata of urban society. All proved abortive or were soon crushed.Were it not for an accident of European history, the independence of Brazil might have been long delayed.

Question 1 of 14

1.The word “anarchy” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • A. uncertainty.
  • B. disorder.
  • C. powerlessness.
  • D. violence.

Question 2 of 14

According to paragraph 1, what first caused Brazilians to think seriously about trying to achieve independence from Portugal?

  • A. Portugal’s declining interest in having overseas colonies.
  • B. Portugal’s moves to gain political and economic control of Brazil for its own advantage.
  • C. The drive toward independence going on at the time in parts of Spanish America.
  • D. The Portuguese reaction to Brazil’s efforts to gain control over its economy.

Question 3 of 14

According to paragraph 1, what happened to the 1788-1799 conspiracy against Portuguese rule?

  • A. It ended up creating discontent in certain provinces of Brazil.
  • B. It increasingly came under the influence of republican ideas from Portugal.
  • C. It was crushed before it got beyond the planning stage.
  • D. It gradually lost the support of the lower strata of urban society.

Paragraph 2: The French invasion of Portugal in 1807 followed by the flight of the Portuguese court (sovereign and government officers) to Rio de Janeiro brought large benefits to Brazil.Indeed, the transfer of the court in effect signified achievement of Brazilian independence. The Portuguese prince and future King Joao VI opened Brazil’s ports to the trade of friendly nations, permitted the rise of local industries, and founded the Bank of Brazil. In 1815 he elevated Brazil to the legal status of a kingdom coequal with Portugal. ln one sense, however, Brazil’s new status signified the substitution of one dependence for another. Freed from Portuguese control, Brazil came under the economic dominance of England, which obtained major tariff concessions and other privileges by the Strangford Treaty of 1810 between Portugal and Great Britain. The treaty provided for the importation of British manufactures into Brazil and the export of Brazilian agricultural produce to Great Britain.One result was an influx of cheap machine-made goods that swamped the handicrafts industry of the country.Question 4 of 14

Question 3 of 14

According to paragraph 2, Brazil gained a significant measure of independence early in the nineteenth century primarily as a result of

  • A. the Portuguese prince’s desire to become King of Brazil rather than King of Portugal.
  • B. Brazil’s growing industrial and financial importance.
  • C. the flight of the Portuguese court to Rio de Janeiro.
  • D. the Strangford Treaty with England.

Question 5 of 14

According to paragraph 2, King Joao did each of the following for Brazil EXCEPT

  • A. establish a national bank.
  • B. support Brazilian industries.
  • C. obtain important tariff concessions from England.
  • D. encourage trade with a wider range of nations.

Paragraph 4: The event that precipitated the break with the mother country was the revolution of 1820 in Portugal. The Portuguese revolutionaries framed a liberal constitution for the kingdom, but they were conservative or reactionary in relation to Brazil. They demanded the immediate return of King Joao to Lisbon, an end to the system of dual monarchy that he had devised, and the restoration of the Portuguese commercial monopoly. Timid and vacillating, King Joao did not know which way to turn. Under the pressure of his courtiers, who hungered to return to Portugal and their lost estates, he finally approved the new constitution and sailed for Portugal. He left behind him, however, his son and heir, Pedro, and in a private letter advised him that in the event the Brazilians should demand independence, he should assume leadership of the movement and set the crown of Brazil on his head.Question 6 of 14

The word “precipitated” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • A. came before.
  • B. brought about.
  • C. resulted from.
  • D. slowed down.

Question 7 of 14

According to paragraph 4, the Portuguese revolutionaries insisted on each of the following EXCEPT

  • A. King Joao’s immediate return to Portugal.
  • B. the creation of a liberal constitution for Brazil.
  • C. an end to Brazil’s status as a kingdom.
  • D. Portuguese control over the Brazilian economy.

Question 8 of 14

The word “Timid” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • A. Fearful.
  • B. Angry.
  • C. Poor.
  • D. Sickly.

Question 9 of 14

In paragraph 4, why does the author mention that King Joao’s courtiers “hungered to return to Portugal and their lost estates”?

  • A. To illustrate how conservative the courtiers were.
  • B. To help explain the position taken by the courtiers.
  • C. To give an example of the effects produced by the revolution.
  • D. To show why King Joao advised his son the way he did.

Paragraph5: Soon it became clear that the Portuguese parliament: intended to set the clock back by abrogating all the liberties and concessions won by Brazil since 1808. One of its decrees insisted on the immediate return of Pedro from Brazil. The pace of events moved more rapidly in 1822. On January 9, urged on by Brazilian advisers who perceived a golden opportunity to make an orderly transition to independence without the intervention of the masses, Pedro refused an order from the parliament to return to Portugal, saying famously, “l remain.” On September 7, regarded by all Brazilians as Independence Day, he issued the even more celebrated proclamation, “Independence or death!” In December 1822, having overcome slight resistance by Portuguese troops, Dom Pedro was formally proclaimed constitutional Emperor of Brazil.Question 10 of 14

Paragraphs 4 and 5 support the idea that Brazil’s move to declare independence in 1822 was primarily the result of

  • A. the revolutionaries’ demand that King Joao return to Portugal.
  • B. Portugal’s apparent intention to return Brazil to the status of a colony.
  • C. King Joao’s decision to leave his son Pedro in Brazil.
  • D. the growing threat of intervention by the Brazilian masses.

Question 11 of 14

Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  • A. On January 9, 1822, Brazil achieved independence without any involvement by the masses when Pedro, despite the urging of his Brazilian advisers, defied a parliamentary order to return to Portugal.
  • B. Following the urging of Brazilian advisers, on January 9, 1822, the Portuguese parliament ordered Pedro to return, but, hoping to avoid conflict with the masses, Pedro declared, “l remain.”.
  • C. The best opportunity for Brazil to achieve independence without involving the masses came on January 9. 1822, but Pedro, saying, “I remain,” refused an order to return to Portugal.
  • D. Seeing the possibility of an orderly transition to independence, Pedro’s Brazilian advisers urged him to refuse to return to Portugal, and on January 9, 1822, Pedro did refuse, declaring, “I remain.”.

Question 12 of 14

According to paragraph 5, Independence Day in Brazil is the date on which

  • A. Brazil made Dom Pedro its constitutional Emperor.
  • B. Dom Pedro refused to comply with the Portuguese parliament’s demand that he return to Portugal.
  • C. the Portuguese parliament officially withdrew all formal connection to Brazil.
  • D. Dom Pedro publicly declared his position by saying, “Independence or death!”.

Paragraph2: The French invasion of Portugal in 1807 followed by the flight of the Portuguese court (sovereign and government officers) to Rio de Janeiro brought large benefits to Brazil.Indeed, the transfer of the court in effect signified achievement of Brazilian independence. The Portuguese prince and future King Joao VI opened Brazil’s ports to the trade of friendly nations, permitted the rise of local industries, and founded the Bank of Brazil. [■] In 1815 he elevated Brazil to the legal status of a kingdom coequal with Portugal. [■] ln one sense, however, Brazil’s new status signified the substitution of one dependence for another. [■]Freed from Portuguese control, Brazil came under the economic dominance of England, which obtained major tariff concessions and other privileges by the Strangford Treaty of 1810 between Portugal and Great Britain. [■] The treaty provided for the importation of British manufactures into Brazil and the export of Brazilian agricultural produce to Great Britain. One result was an influx of cheap machine-made goods that swamped the handicrafts industry of the country.

Question 13 of 14

Look at the four squares  [■]that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■]to add the sentence to the passage .

Therefore, although still closely linked to Portugal, Brazil was no longer formally considered a colony.

Question 14 of 14

Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points. Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it. To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT. It was only after the Portuguese court moved to Brazil that significant progress toward Brazilian independence began .

  • A.Major conspiracies against Portuguese dominance developed in regions where governmental control over Brazil’s economy had produced a spirit of revolt among Brazilian merchants.
  • B.King Joao effectively freed Brazil from Portugal’s political and economic control and in 1815 elevated Brazil to the legal status of a kingdom coequal with Portugal.
  • C.After freeing itself from Portuguese control. Brazil almost immediately fell under the control of England, which used its economic power to advance Brazil’s local industry for England’s benefit.
  • D.The presence of King Joao and his court in Rio de Janeiro created competition and tension with the Portuguese elites born in Brazil, who had no loyalties to the Portuguese crown.
  • E.After the Portuguese revolution in 1820, Portugal attempted to reestablish complete control over Brazil; but although King Joao returned to Lisbon, Pedro, his son and heir, remained in Brazil.
  • F.In 1822 Dom Pedro refused Portugal’s demand that he return, declared Brazil’s independence, and by the year’s end had become constitutional Emperor of an independent Brazil.

The end of the 2nd reading passage.


Reading passage III

Predator-Prey Cycles

How do predators affect populations of the prey animals? The answer is not as simple as might be thought. Moose reached Isle Royale in Lake Superior by crossing over winter ice and multiplied freely there in isolation without predators. When wolves later reached the island, naturalists widely assumed that the wolves would play a key role in controlling the moose population. Careful studies have demonstrated, however, that this is not the case. The wolves eat mostly old or diseased animals that would not survive long anyway. In general, the moose population is controlled by food availability, disease and other factors rather than by wolves. 

When experimental populations are set up under simple laboratory conditions, the predator often exterminates its pre and then becomes extinct itself, having nothing left to eat. However, if safe areas like those prey animals have in the wild are provided, the prey population drops to low level but not extinction. Low prey population levels then provide inadequate food for the predators, causing the predator population to decrease. When this occurs, the prey population can rebound. In this situation the predator and prey population may continue in this cyclical pattern for some time.

Population cycles are characteristic of small mammals, and they sometimes appear to be brought about by predators. Ecologists studying hare populations have found that the North American snow shoe hare follows a roughly ten-year cycle. Its numbers fall tenfold to thirty in a typical cycle, and a hundredfold change can occur. Two factors appear to be generating the cycle: food plants and predators.

The preferred foods of snowshoe hares are willow and birch twigs. As hare density increases, the quantity of these twigs decreases, forcing the hares to feed on low-quality high-fiber food. Lower birth rates, low juvenile survivorship, and low growth rates follow, so there is a corresponding decline in hare abundance. Once the hare population has declined, it takes two to three year for the quantity of twigs to recover. 

A key predator of the snowshoe hare is the Canada lynx. The Canada lynx shows a ten-year cycle of abundance that parallels the abundance cycle of hares. As hare numbers fall, so do lynx numbers, as their food supply depleted.

What causes the predator-prey oscillations? Do increasing number of hares lead to overharvesting of plants, which in turn results in reduced hare populations, or do increasing numbers of lynx lead to overharvesting hares? Field experiments carried out by Charles Krebs and coworkers in 1992 provide an answer. Krebs investigated experimental plots in Canada’s Yukon territory that contained hare populations. When food was added to those plots (no food effect) and predators were excluded (no predator effect) from an experimental area, hare numbers increased tenfold and stayed there—the cycle was lost. However, the cycle was retained if either of the factors was allowed to operate alone: if predators were excluded but food was not added (food effect alone), or if food was added in the presence of predators (predator effect alone). Thus both factors can affect the cycle, which, in practice, seems to be generated by conjunction of the two factors.

Predators are an essential factor in maintaining communities that are rich and diverse in species. Without predators, the species that is the best competitor for food, shelter, nesting sites, and other environmental resources tends to dominate and exclude the species with which it competes. This phenomenon is known as “competitor exclusion”. However, if the community contains a predator of the strongest competitor species, then the population of that competitor is controlled. Thus even the less competitive species are able to survive. For example, sea stars prey on a variety of bivalve mollusks and prevent these bivalves from monopolizing habitats on the sea floor. This opens up space for many other organisms. When sea stars are removed, species diversity falls sharply. Therefore, from the stand point of diversity, it is usually a mistake to eliminate a major predator from a community.

Paragraph 1: How do predators affect populations of the prey animals? The answer is not as simple as might be thought. Moose reached Isle Royale in Lake Superior by crossing over winter ice and multiplied freely there in isolation without predators. When wolves later reached the island, naturalists widely assumed that the wolves would play a key role in controlling the moose population. Careful studies have demonstrated, however, that this is not the case. The wolves eat mostly old or diseased animals that would not survive long anyway. In general, the moose population is controlled by food availability, disease and other factors rather than by wolves.

1.In paragraph 1, why does the author discuss the moose and wolves on Isle Royale?

  • To provide an example of predators moving to new habitats by following migrating prey
  • To show that the interactions between predator populations and prey populations are not always might be expected
  • To suggest that prey populations are more influenced by predation than food availability and disease
  • To argue that studies of geographically isolated populations tend not to be useful to naturalists

Paragraph 2: When experimental populations are set up under simple laboratory conditions, the predator often exterminates its pre and then becomes extinct itself, having nothing left to eat. However, if safe areas like those prey animals have in the wild are provided, the prey population drops to low level but not extinction. Low prey population levels then provide inadequate food for the predators, causing the predator population to decrease. When this occurs, the prey population can rebound. In this situation the predator and prey population may continue in this cyclical pattern for some time.

Paragraph 3:  Population cycles are characteristic of small mammals, and they sometimes appear to be brought about by predators. Ecologists studying hare populations have found that the North American snow shoe hare follows a roughly ten-year cycle. Its numbers fall tenfold to thirty in a typical cycle, and a hundredfold change can occur. Two factors appear to be generating the cycle: food plants and predators.

2. The word “rebound” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • escape
  • recover
  • survive
  • resist

3.Paragraph 2 implies which of the following about experimental environments in which predators become extinct?

  • They may yield results that do not accurate predict changes of populations in the wild.
  • In these environments, the prey species is better adapted than the predator species.
  • These environments are appropriate only for studying small populations of predators and prey.
  • They are unrealistic because some predators are also the prey of other predators.

4.Which of the following can be inferred from paragraphs 2 and 3 about the small mammals that experience population cycles?

  • Their population cycles are not affected by predators.
  • Their predators’ populations periodically disappear.
  • They typically undergo ten-year cycles.
  • They have access to places safe from predators.

5. The word “roughly” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • usually
  • repeating
  • approximately
  • observable

6. The word “generating” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • producing
  • changing
  • speeding up
  • smoothing out

Paragraph 4: The preferred foods of snowshoe hares are willow and birch twigs. As hare density increases, the quantity of these twigs decreases, forcing the hares to feed on low-quality high-fiber food. Lower birth rates, low juvenile survivorship, and low growth rates follow, so there is a corresponding decline in hare abundance. Once the hare population has declined, it takes two to three year for the quantity of twigs to recover.

7.According to paragraph 4, all of the following are true of the food of snowshoe hares EXCEPT

  • The preferred food fore hares consists of willow and birch twigs.
  • High fiber food is the most nutritious for hares.
  • Depletion of the supply of willow and birch twigs cause low birth and growth rates.
  • The food supply takes two or three years to recover after a peak in hare population density.

8. The word “conjunction” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  • determination
  • combination
  • alternation
  • transformation

Paragraph 5: A key predator of the snowshoe hare is the Canada lynx. The Canada lynx shows a ten-year cycle of abundance that parallels the abundance cycle of hares. As hare numbers fall, so do lynx numbers, as their food supply depleted.

9.According to paragraph 5, which of the following statements best characterizes the abundance cycle of the Canada lynx?

  • It closely follows the cycle the snowshoe hare.
  • When the numbers of lynx fall, the numbers of snowshoe hares soon decrease.
  • When hare numbers decrease, lynx numbers increase.
  • It is not clearly related to the availability of lynx food.

Paragraph 6: What causes the predator-prey oscillations? Do increasing number of hares lead to overharvesting of plants, which in turn results in reduced hare populations, or do increasing numbers of lynx lead to overharvesting hares? Field experiments carried out by Charles Krebs and coworkers in 1992 provide an answer. Krebs investigated experimental plots in Canada’s Yukon territory that contained hare populations. When food was added to those plots (no food effect) and predators were excluded (no predator effect) from an experimental area, hare numbers increased tenfold and stayed there—the cycle was lost. However, the cycle was retained if either of the factors was allowed to operate alone: if predators were excluded but food was not added (food effect alone), or if food was added in the presence of predators (predator effect alone). Thus both factors can affect the cycle, which, in practice, seems to be generated by conjunction of the two factors.

10.According to paragraph 6, which of the following was true of the hare population cycle in Krebs’s experiment?

  • The effects of providing food while at the same time introducing predators cancelled each other, so there was no cycle.
  • The cycle existed when either the food supply was limited or there were predators.
  • There was a cycle when there were no predators and food was supplied.
  • If the hares had places to hide from the lynx, the hare population increased tenfold and then remained at that level.

Paragraph 7: Predators are an essential factor in maintaining communities that are rich and diverse in species. Without predators, the species that is the best competitor for food, shelter, nesting sites, and other environmental resources tends to dominate and exclude the species with which it competes. ■This phenomenon is known as “competitor exclusion”. ■However, if the community contains a predator of the strongest competitor species, then the population of that competitor is controlled. ■Thus even the less competitive species are able to survive. ■For example, sea stars prey on a variety of bivalve mollusks and prevent these bivalves from monopolizing habitats on the sea floor. This opens up space for many other organisms. When sea stars are removed, species diversity falls sharply. Therefore, from the stand point of diversity, it is usually a mistake to eliminate a major predator from a community.

11.According to paragraph 7, which of the following statements correctly characterizes the effect of sea stars on the ecosystem in which they are predators of bivalves?

  • Bivalve population are kept low, allowing species that compete with bivalves to survive.
  • The numbers of most species of bivalves are greatly reduced, leaving the bivalve species that is the strongest competitor to dominate among the survivors.
  • Biological diversity begins to decrease because many bivalve species disappear.
  • Sea stars dominate at first but then die off because of the depleted food supply.

12.According to paragraph 7, which of the following is true of the phenomenon of competitor exclusion?

  • It results in more diverse communities.
  • It requires the presence of predators.
  • It affects all competitions equally.
  • It happens only when there is a dominant competitor.

13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. 

As a result, there are not enough of the strong competitions to monopolize the environment’s resources.

Where would the sentence best fit?

Paragraph 7: Predators are an essential factor in maintaining communities that are rich and diverse in species. Without predators, the species that is the best competitor for food, shelter, nesting sites, and other environmental resources tends to dominate and exclude the species with which it competes. ■This phenomenon is known as “competitor exclusion”. ■However, if the community contains a predator of the strongest competitor species, then the population of that competitor is controlled. ■Thus even the less competitive species are able to survive. ■For example, sea stars prey on a variety of bivalve mollusks and prevent these bivalves from monopolizing habitats on the sea floor. This opens up space for many other organisms. When sea stars are removed, species diversity falls sharply. Therefore, from the stand point of diversity, it is usually a mistake to eliminate a major predator from a community.

14 Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

The relationships between predators and prey are complex.

Answer Choices

  • Studies of the interactions between wolves and moose on Isle Royale in Lake Superior reveal that wolf predation is not the primary factor controlling the moose population.
  • Predators help maintain biological diversity by limiting populations of a dominant competitor species, thereby preventing that species from excluding others.
  • A species’ population tends to rise and falls in a cycle pattern if the food supply for the population is limited, or if the population has a major predator.
  • Ecologists are interested in studying predator-prey population cycles because understanding how predators and prey interact will allow better wildlife management programs.
  • In predator-prey population cycles, predator populations increase or decrease following similar population changes in the species they prey on.
  • The removal of sea stars reduces the diversity of the community in which they are predators, and is therefore a bad idea.

This is the end of the reading model test.


Now you are all set.

Please turn to your teacher for your test result.



HUGEdu托福听力入学测试


Welcome to HUGEdu TOEFL listening model test.

In this test, you will be given 2 sections of listening passages, in each section, there will be 1 conversation and 2 lectures.
You may take notes while you are listening, you may use your notes while you are answering your questions. 
Now please take out a few pieces of scratch paper and write your notes and answer choices on them.

You have 60 minutes to answer the test.

Now please put on your headset.

SECTION1

Conversation 1

Restricted Access

Listen to a conversation between a student and a librarian.


1. What are the speakers mainly discussing?

  • A. The student’s difficulties locating sources for a research project
  • B. The topic of the student’s research project
  • C. The student’s request to visit a particular part of the library
  • D. Procedures for requesting different editions of a book

2. Why is the student unable to use later editions or reproductions of a book he mentions?

  • A. The later editions contain errors.
  • B. Professor Gray specified the use of a particular edition.
  • C. The later editions must be requested from another library.
  • D. Reproductions typically omit the specific material he needs.

3. Why is the student reluctant to contact Professor Gray?

  • A. He already has disturbed her several times during her time away from campus.
  • B. He does not feel comfortable about asking her for another favor.
  • C. He does not know her e-mail address.
  • D. He wants to surprise her with a completed project.

4. What does the woman imply about the rules regarding Special Collections?

  • A. The rules are unfair to the students.
  • B. The rules are in place to protect the books.
  • C. The rules are determined by the professors.
  • D. The rules have changed since the previous semester.

5. What does the woman mean when she says this: 🎧

  • A. She has been in a similar situation herself.
  • B. She will help the student solve his problem.
  • C. She has often heard this kind of story from students.
  • D. She thinks the student should try to understand her situation.

Lecture 1

Montessori Method


Listen to part of a lecture in an education class. The professor is discussing the Italian educator Maria Montessori.

1. What is the lecture mainly about?

  • A. Children’s reactions to the Montessori Method
  • B. Teacher training in the Montessori Method
  • C. How the Montessori Method facilitates children’s development
  • D. How Maria Montessori developed her educational method

2. What does the professor imply about the furniture that was traditionally found in children’s classrooms in the early 1900s?
[CHOOSE 3 ANSWERS]

  • A. It did not encourage interaction among children.
  • B. It helped maintain discipline in the classroom.
  • C. It was heavy and difficult for children to move.
  • D. It was not child sized.
  • E. It encouraged children to act independently.

3. According to the professor, what is the primary goal of the Montessori teacher?

  • A. To instruct the child in the correct use of the manipulative equipment
  • B. To prepare the child socially for future school interactions
  • C. To focus directly on the skills necessary for academic success
  • D. To guide the child to learn skills and concepts independently

4. What is the professor’s attitude about the Montessori teacher’s role?

  • A. She thinks children need more interaction with adults than it allows.
  • B. She thinks it is too limiting for the teacher.
  • C. She thinks it could be a difficult role to perform.
  • D. She thinks it demands expertise in many academic areas.

5. What does the example of the brown stairs demonstrate about Montessori classroom materials?

  • A. That natural materials provide children with a superior sensorial experience
  • B. That Montessori classroom materials are generally the same as those used in other primary schools
  • C. That same materials lack a particular educational focus
  • D. That one set of materials can be used to introduce several skills

6. Why does the professor mention the violin?
[CHOOSE 2 ANSWERS]

  • A. To demonstrate the type of creativity the Montessori method encourages
  • B. To stress the importance of music education at an early age
  • C. To give an example of how advanced Montessori lessons can be
  • D. To show that Montessori teachers expect materials to be used for their intended purpose

Lecture 2

Distribution Of Galaxies

Listen to part of the lecture in the astronomy class.


1. What is the main purpose of the lecture?

  • A. To explain the difficulty of classifying distant objects in the universe 
  • B. To introduce a classification system for galaxy clusters 
  • C. To present some recent discoveries about the shapes of galaxies 
  • D. To describe some differences between galaxies and clusters

2. What did Shapley and Ames discover about the universe?

  • A. Most galaxies are symmetrical.
  • B. More galaxies exist in the universe than was once believed. 
  • C. Galaxies occur in clusters throughout the universe.
  • D. Clusters are distributed uniformly throughout the universe.

3. Why does the professor emphasize the number of clusters mapped by Abell?

  • A. To help explain why Abell’s classification scheme was widely adopted 
  • B. To explain why Abell was the first astronomer to notice spiral-shaped galaxies
  • C. To provide evidence that Abell’s method of surveying galaxies was superior to that used for previous surveys 
  • D. To show how much Abell relied on earlier research

4. What aspects of clusters did Abell use to classify them?
[CHOOSE 2 ANSWERS]

  • A. The density of the cluster
  • B. The shape of the cluster
  • C. The age of the cluster
  • D. The type of galaxies in the cluster

5. Why does the professor discuss the Coma and Virgo clusters?

  • A. To indicate a limitation of Abell’s survey 
  • B. To distinguish between rich and non-rich clusters
  • C. To demonstrate that clusters considered irregular in shape are basically spherical 
  • D. To illustrate that the shape of a cluster is independent of the shape of the galaxies within it

6. What is the professor’s opinion of Abell’s assumption that all clusters are about the same size?

  • A. He is surprised that it has been disproved.
  • B. He believes that there is not enough data to support it.
  • C. He is impressed that it has been proved correct.
  • D. He thinks it is Abell’s most important contribution to astronomy.

The end of the first section.


SECTION2

Conversation 1

Grotowski’s Idea About Theater

Listen to a conversation between a student and a theater professor.


1. What are the speakers mainly discussing?

  • A. A play by Grotowski that was discussed in class.  
  • B. A proposal that the student has for an assignment.  
  • C. A play that is currently being performed at the university.  
  • D. The main phases in Grotowski’s career as a director.

2. What does the student imply when he talks about the play he recently attended?

  • A. He attended the play because he is writing an essay on it.  
  • B. He wished the play were more experimental.  
  • C. He thought his roommate showed great talent.  
  • D. He was not familiar with the author of the play.

3. What are two characteristics of Grotowski’s theater that the speakers mention?
[CHOOSE 2 ANSWERS]

  • A. The minimal equipment on the stage in his productions.
  • B. The single stories that his plays are based on.
  • C. The elaborate costumes the actors wear in his plays.  
  • D. The actions of the performers in his plays.

4. Why does the professor mention a play she attended several years ago?

  • A. To compare it to the play she saw the previous evening.  
  • B. To suggest that Grotowski’s principles do not necessarily lead to effective theater.  
  • C. To show how different it was from Poor theater.  
  • D. To provide an example of one of the ideas the student wants to research.

5. What does the professor imply about the acting the student wants to do?

  • A. Audiences are no longer surprised by that type of acting.
  • B. The acting requires less physical preparation than he thinks.  
  • C. He will not be able to master that style of acting easily.
  • D. He should spend less time acting for the class and more time on class discussion.

Lecture3

Migration Of Zooplankton

Listen to part of the lecture in the marine biology class.


1. What does the professor mainly discuss?

  • A. The importance of zooplankton in the marine food chain
  • B. The interdependence of two types of tiny marine organisms
  • C. A physical feature of zooplankton that makes them well adapted for swimming
  • D. A phenomenon observed in some species of zooplankton

2. Why does the professor conclude that zooplankton must derive an important benefit from diel vertical migration?

  • A. Diel vertical migration uses up a lot of energy.
  • B. Diel vertical migration exposes zooplankton to predators.
  • C. Diel vertical migration prevents zooplankton from being able to digest phytoplankton.
  • D. Diel vertical migration forces zooplankton populations to live permanently in cold water.

3. What does the professor imply about bioluminescent zooplankton?

  • A. Their food source is different from that of other zooplankton.
  • B. They probably do not rely on diel vertical migration to avoid predation.
  • C. They migrate deeper than other zooplankton species do.
  • D. Most species are found in very cold water.

4. Why does the professor mention fish that live in freshwater lakes?

  • A. To point out that many aquatic species exhibit diel vertical migration
  • B. To give an example of a species of fish that feeds on bioluminescent zooplankton
  • C. To make a comparison between fish and zooplankton
  • D. To support one of the theories explaining why zooplankton migrate

5. Avoiding predators is one possible explanation for why zooplankton dive so deeply in the ocean. What two other explanations for this phenomenon does the professor offer?
[CHOOSE 2 ANSWERS]

  • A. To avoid ultraviolet light
  • B. To avoid strong ocean currents
  • C. To digest in colder waters
  • D. To find abundant food sources

6. What does the professor imply about the reasons for diel vertical migration in zooplankton?

  • A. No single explanation for all species can account for this phenomenon.
  • B. Researchers have not been able to propose plausible theories to explain this phenomenon.
  • C. All individual organisms have several reasons for migrating.
  • D. Researchers were able to agree on an explanation for this phenomenon after many years of investigation.

Lecture4

Frescos

Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class. The professor has been discussing the Italian Renaissance.


1. What does the professor mainly discuss?

  • A. What inspired the main themes of Renaissance frescoes.
  • B. Techniques used in the creation of Renaissance frescoes.
  • C. How Renaissance painters restored ancient frescoes that were deteriorating. 
  • D. Different techniques for painting on indoor and outdoor surfaces.

2. Why does the professor mention the ancient Romans?

  • A. To explain that they did not paint the walls and ceilings of buildings. 
  • B. To point out that they first made the term “fresco” popular.
  • C. To make the point that frescoes were created before the Renaissance.
  • D. To introduce an important difference between ancient art and Renaissance art.

3. According to the professor, what were two purposes of the reed mats?
[CHOOSE 2 ANSWERS]

  • A. To provide a comfortable area for artists to stand on while painting.
  • B. To prevent moisture from damaging frescoes.
  • C. To cover and protect frescoes during the cold season.
  • D. To create a smooth surface for the application of plaster.

4. What point does the professor emphasize about buildings from the Italian Renaissance?

  • A. They were large in order to indicate wealth.
  • B. They were designed by teams of engineers.
  • C. Most of them were built with very smooth walls.
  • D. Very few of them were decorated on the inside.

5. What does the professor imply about the idea that artistic geniuses worked in solitude?

  • A. It has been gaining support among today’s scholars.
  • B. It is accurate for Michelangelo, but not for Raphael.
  • C. It is accurate for Renaissance artists, but not for today’s artists. 
  • D. It does not apply to artists working on frescoes.

6. What does the professor imply about the process of creating frescoes?

  • A. Some frescoes took hundreds of years to complete. 
  • B. Many frescoes were created entirely by apprentices.
  • C. Apprentices worked independently of one another on different sections of a wall at the same time.
  • D. One section of a fresco was completed before the next section was begun.

This is the end of the test.


Please turn to your teacher for your test result.


A scoring chart you could refer to:


C D B B C
C ACD D C D AD
B C A AB D C
B B AD D C
D A B D AC A
B C BD A D D

HUGEdu托福口语入学测试


Welcome to our TOEFL Speaking model test in HUGEdu®️.

In this section, you will be given 6 speaking tasks, including 2 independent tasks and 4 integrated tasks. You will have 20 minutes to finish all 6 tasks.

Please follow the time schedule and finish each task in the limited time required, and you may use your timer during the test.

While you’re taking the test, you may take notes, and you may use your notes while you are answering your questions. 

You can only record each of your response ONE time.

Now please put on your headset. 


Task 1

Which of the following study methods do you think is the most productive? Having discussions with friends, reading textbooks, or writing reports?

Now you have 15 seconds to prepare your response, begin preparing now.

Now you have 45 seconds to give you response, please take out your recorder to record. Remember, you can only record response ONE time.

Begin your response now.


Task 2

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: all students should attend social activities such as joining a club or a sports team in school. Use details and examples to support your opinion.

Now you have 15 seconds to prepare your response, begin preparing now.

Now you have 45 seconds to give you response, please take out your recorder to record. Remember, you can only record response ONE time.

Begin your response now.


Task 3

In this task, you will be given 45 seconds to read a short passage, then you will listen to a short conversation between 2 speakers.

Begin reading now: 45 seconds.

Allow Laptops in Class

Though most of us own laptop computer, we are currently not allowed to use them during class. I think this policy should be changed. Since most of us type faster than we write by hand, taking notes on a computer would be quicker and easier, so we could pay more attention to professor’s lectures. Also, since laptop computers have internet access, professors could direct students to view Web sites with useful information while lectures are going on. They could look up useful facts and background information on a topic or view different photographs or illustrations of something the professor is describing. This would help students gain a more complete understanding of lecture topics.

Sincerely 

Jodie Smith

Now listen to two students discussing the article.

Question

The man expresses his opinion of the proposal the student makes in the letter. State his opinion and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion.

Now you have 30 seconds to prepare your response, begin preparing now.

Now you have 60 seconds to give you response, please take out your recorder to record. You may use your notes while you give your response. Remember, you can only record response ONE time.

Begin your response now.


Task 4

In this task, you will be given 45 seconds to read a short passage, then you will listen to a short lecture in this topic.

Begin reading now: 45 seconds.

The Suspension of Disbelief

As members of an audience, we can best enjoy the the performance of a play if we become emotionally involved with the events and characters on stage. But to do this, we need to forget that what we see on stage is only imaginary, and pretend instead—temporarily—that it is real. This ability to temporarily put aside, or suspend, our doubt and believe that the action of a play is real is called the suspension of disbelief. Suspending disbelief enables viewers to become more and more absorbed in the play as they watch the story develop, and to respond emotionally to the events and characters as if they were real.

Now listen to a short lecture in this topic.

Question

Explain how the example from the lecture illustrates the suspension of disbelief.

Now you have 30 seconds to prepare your response, begin preparing now.

Now you have 60 seconds to give you response, please take out your recorder to record. You may use your notes while you give your response. Remember, you can only record response ONE time.

Begin your response now.


Task 5

In this task, you will listen to a short conversation between 2 speakers, then answer the question.

Question

Briefly summarize the woman’s problem. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation.

Now you have 20 seconds to prepare your response, begin preparing now.

Now you have 60 seconds to give you response, please take out your recorder to record. You may use your notes while you give your response. Remember, you can only record response ONE time.

Begin your response now.


Task 6

In this task, you will listen to a short lecture, then answer the question.

Question

Using the examples from the professor’s lecture, explain how snails survive in hot and dry climate.

Now you have 20 seconds to prepare your response, begin preparing now.

Now you have 60 seconds to give you response, please take out your recorder to record. You may use your notes while you give your response. Remember, you can only record response ONE time.

Begin your response now.


Now please turn to your teacher and submit all 6 of your recorded response.


HUGEdu 托福写作入学测试


Make sure your headset is on.

This section measures your ability to use writing to communicate in an academic environment. There will be 2 writing tasks.



1-Integrated Writing

Now you will see the reading passage for 3 minutes. Remember that it will be available to you again when you write. Immediately after the reading time ends, the lecture will begin, so keep your headset on until the lecture is over.

After the lecture, you have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well you response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.

Turn to your pages or words to answer the question with formal writing format. Then submit your answer to your consultant.


Reading

While scientists have been seriously observing animal behavior for well over a hundred years, the study of why animals play has only recently become a serious research topic. At least three different theories have been advanced to explain the phenomenon.

The first theory is called the surplus energy theory. This theory maintains that some animals, mammals for example, are so efficient at using energy that they often do not manage to spend all the energy they receive through food. They end up with unused, surplus energy that they cannot store. According to this theory, animals have to play to get rid of the surplus energy that they have not used.

A second theory is called the instinct-practice theory. It states that young animals play as part of their physical education. The physical actions that animals will need to use for survival are instinctual, that is, preprogrammed in their brains. The animals, however, have to train their bodies to be able to perform these actions. So this theory explains why the play of young animals centers on real-life tasks. For example, predatory animals those that hunt, kill, and consume other animals for food have often been observed attacking and biting during play, which are precisely the skills they will need in order to hunt for food.

A third theory, called the social functions theory, is that animals play to establish social relationships within their group. Basically, play gives animals a chance to bond with the other members in their group. For example, in a study of rats, those that played together made high-pitched squeaks that were accompanied by the release of pleasure-causing chemicals in the brain. This association of play with pleasure may motivate the animals to stay together as a  harmonious group even while not playing.

Listening

Now begin to give your response.


2-Independent Writing

Directions: Read the question below. You have 30 minutes to plan, write, and revise your essay. Typically, an effective response will contain a minimum of 300 words.


Do you agree or disagree with the statement :

Compared with people who live in cities, people who live in rural areas can take better care of families.

Turn to your pages or words to answer the question with formal writing format. Then submit your answer to your consultant.


This is the end of the test.
Now please turn to your teacher to your test result.

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