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天文学词汇讲解(文弢老师整理,虎哥sarah讲解)


艺术类话题
A controversial portrait of Shakespeare


1. What is the lecture mainly about?

  • A The portrait that was the basis for an authentic sculpture of William Shakespeare
  • B The engraving on the cover of a famous writer’s first published works 
  • C A debate surrounding the subject of a portrait painted in the 1600s 
  • D A sculpture, engraving, and painting found within a family’s private art collection

2. What does the professor imply about testing that was done on a portrait?

  • A The results showed that Shakespeare was born later than originally thought. 
  • B The testing was carried out against the wishes of the owner. 
  • C The wood base was easier to test than the oil paint. 
  • D The results verified that the portrait was painted during Shakespeare’s lifetime.

3. Why does the professor mention the queen’s laws?

  • A To criticize the restrictive clothing regulations of the period 
  • B To explain why some people think the man in the painting could not have been a playwright  
  • C To illustrate the queen’s support of the arts and literature during her time  
  • D To explain that only certain classes of society were allowed to pose for portraits

4. According to the professor, what is a notable characteristic of portraits painted during the early 1600s?

  • A Portraits were often modified after a person’s death.
  • B The type of frame indicated the social status of the subject.
  • C Portraits of ordinary people became common. 
  • D Portraits often did not show people’s unattractive features.

5. What has been confirmed about the first owner of a controversial painting?

  • A The owner supported Shakespeare financially.
  • B The owner made a living as a portrait painter. 
  • C The owner was a member of Shakespeare’s family. 
  • D The owner shared the same political beliefs as Sir Thomas Overbury. 

6. What is the professor’s opinion of an art historian’s theory that the Cobbe portrait is not of Shakespeare?

  • A He agrees with the conclusions of the theory. 
  • B He believes that there is evidence that disproves the theory. 
  • C He feels that only certain parts of theory are convincing. 
  • D He thinks more analyses are needed before the theory con be taken seriously.

1. What is the lecture mainly about?

  • A. The decline in the popularity of ballet and ballet music in Paris 
  • B. The reactions of people at the first performance of a piece of music 
  • C. Societal influences on the composer of a famous ballet
  • D. A comparison of two controversial Parisian ballets 

2. What point does the professor make when discussing the musical instruments used on The Rite of Spring?

  • A. The instruments were not typically used to perform ballet music
  • B. The instruments were played by inexperienced musicians 
  • C. The instruments could not be heard due to the noise of the dancers
  • D. The melodies played by the instruments did not seem to combine well with each other 

3. What does the professor imply about many members of the audience that came to the premiere performance of The Rite of Spring?

  • A. They had never seen ballet before
  • B. They were professional musicians and dancers 
  • C. They were expecting an evening of traditional ballet 
  • D. They objected to the new design of the theater 

4. Why does the professor quote an eyewitness’s account of the performance in Paris? 

  • A. To describe Nijinsky’s choreography of The Rite of Spring
  • B. To explain how the choreography of The Rite of Spring influenced later ballets
  • C. To contrast the two ballets that were performed that evening 
  • D. To illustrate a complaint about the newly reconstructed theater 

5. According to the professor, how did members of the audience react to the Paris performance? 

  • A. They successfully urged police to remove Stravinsky from the theater.
  • B. They argued and even fought with each other.
  • C. Many of them protested the performance by leaving the theater. 
  • D. Nearly all of them sat silently, refusing to applaud. 

6. What is the professor’s opinion about the claim that, in general, the Paris audience was upset more by the dancing than by Stravinsky’s music?

  • A. He believes it is a valid conclusion, supported by historical evidence.
  • B. He believes the claim was an intentional exaggeration, made to attract a larger audience. 
  • C. He believes there is no sure way of knowing the true cause of the audience’s reaction. 
  • D. He believes the claim was disproved by audience responses to later performances. 

天文学类
Nebula


  1. What does the professor main discuss? 
  • A. ways that stars become nebulae
  • B. reasons that nebulae appear to give off blue light
  • C. difference between nebulae and stars
  • D. a basis for classifying types of nebulae

2. What point does the professor make about orion’s sword? 

  • A. it points toward a nebula in the constellation taurus.
  • B. it contains a nebula that looks like a star to the naked eye.
  • C. it contain stars whose light is a reflection of other nearby stars. 
  • D. it contains two stars that are remnants of a supernova.

3. What does the professor say about the origin of the crab nebula? 

  • A. It was formed when interstellar gas clouds combined.
  • B. It was created by an exploding star.
  • C. It did not emit when it was first formed.
  • D. It was formed in the same way as many reflection nebulae.

4. Based on the lecture, which answer choices describe emission nebulae and which describe reflection nebulae?
[Click on an answer choice, Then drag in to the space where it belongs. One of The answer choices will not be used.]

emission nebulae Drag your answer choices here
reflection nebulae Drag your answer choices here

Answer Choices:

  • A. They give off red light. 
  • B. They give off blue light.
  • C. They can only be seen from locations near the equator. 
  • D. They do not contain glowing gas.

5. What is a typical characteristic of dark nebulae? 

  • A. They are obscured from view by nearby stars.
  • B. They are located in parts of the sky that do not contain bright stars. 
  • C. The dust and gas they contain are too dense to let light through.
  • D. They are too hot to emit radiation in the visible range.

6. Listen again to part of the lecture. Then answer the question.
Why does the professor say this: 🎧
[So star formation is not necessarily the source of the light in Emission Nebulae.]

  • A. To clarify his previous statement
  • B. To call attention to an unusual phenomenon 
  • C. To emphasize a feature of all types of nebulae 
  • D. To repeat a point he made earlier

天文学
Precipitation on Titan


1. What is the main purpose of the lecture?

  • A. To explore the possibility that life may have once existed on Titan 
  • B. To show how evidence of water on Titan was detected
  • C. To discuss recent findings about precipitation on Titan
  • D. To explain how the moons of Earth and Saturn have evolved similarly 

2. Why does the professor mention the discovery of a large dark spot on the surface of Titan? 

  • A. To identify one reason scientists now think that it rains on Titan
  • B. To point out the difficulty in distinguishing surface and atmospheric features on Titan
  • C. To emphasize that surface winds have changed the landscape 
  • D. To show how lakes are detected on Titan 

3. According to the professor, how does Titan’s ITCZ differ from that of Earth? 

  • A. Titan’s ITCZ does not result from the convergence of surface winds
  • B. Titan’s ITCZ remains at the north pole most of the time
  • C. The position of Titan’s ITCZ ensures that tropical precipitation occurs all year round 
  • D. The position of Titan’s ITCZ shifts from one polar region to the other 

4. According to the professor, why are the atmospheric circulation patterns on Titan simpler than those found on Earth?

  • A. Titan’s ITCZ keeps these patterns from becoming movable
  • B. Titan rotate more slowly than Earth does 
  • C. Titan is a moon rather than a planet
  • D. Titan’s hydrologic cycle involves methane rather than water 

5. What does the professor say are likely results of the very low temperatures on Titan?
[CHOOSE 2 ANSWERS]

  • A. Lakes of liquid methane can exist there.
  • B. There is no possibility of life there 
  • C. Precipitation evaporates quickly there 
  • D. The ITCZ migrates widely there 

6. What is the professor’s opinion regarding future research on Titan?

  • A. Astronomers should concentrate for now on interpreting the data they have already gathered 
  • B. Future research may provide a different interpretation of Titan’s atmospheric properties
  • C. It will probably be difficult to obtain funding for additional research missions to Saturn
  • D. Future research will add to our understanding of conditions on Earth before life appeared 

地质学
Tectonic Plates


1. What is the lecture mainly about?

  • A. The recent discovery of an unusual tectonic plate
  • B. The effects of underwater riffs on plate boundaries located on land
  • C. The development of a new technology for studying rifts located on land
  • D. The process by which tectonic plates are separated

2. Why does the professor mention Iceland?

  • A. To support the claim that rifts occur wherever volcanoes occur
  • B. To point out that Iceland is located on a plate boundary
  • C. To give an example of a rift area that is located on land
  • D. To give an example of an extraordinary active rift system

3. What unexpected discovery did scientists make while studying the rift event in East Africa?

  • A. Rifts can widen more quickly than previously thought.
  • B. Some magma deposits lie closer to Earth surface than geologists realized.
  • C. Volcanic activity is not necessary for rift formation.
  • D. Volcanic activity along land rifts is different from activity along underwater rifts.

4. In the lecture the professor discusses an event that occurred along a rift in East Africa. Place the stages of this event in order.

 
 
 
 

Answer Choices

  • A. Molten rock flowed into the rift and widened it.
  • B. There was a brief period of inactivity.
  • C. Seismic activity began 30 kilometers south of the northern volcanoes.
  • D. There was a series of earthquakes near the northern volcanoes.

5. According to the professor, what may eventually occur at the location of the recent rift event in East Africa?

  • A. Two tectonic plates will merge.
  • B. A deep basin will form.
  • C. A new fissure will open.
  • D. Underground earthquakes will become more frequent.

6. What does the professor imply when he says this: 🎧

“But then, in the eastern part of Africa is a complex system of rifts called, shockingly enough, the East Africa rift system.”

  • A. The East Africa Rift System is much larger than previously thought.
  • B. “East Africa Rift System” is an obvious name for the system.
  • C. The East Africa Rift System is not actually a system.
  • D. Not all of the East Africa Rift System is located in Africa.

历史
Foraging and farming


1. What is the lecture mainly about?

  • A. The relative advantages of foraging and farming
  • B. The discovery of evidence that dates the origin of agriculture
  • C. The differences between early farmers and modern farmers
  • D. The reasons foraging is no longer practiced today

2. In what ways was the forager’s diet preferable to that of the early farmer?
[CHOOSE 2 ANSWERS]

  • A. It had greater variety
  • B. It contained more protein
  • C. The foods were easier to digest
  • D. The foods were easier to cook

3. Why does the professor mention skeletons found in Greece and Turkey?

  • A. To support the theory that many early farmers died of starvation
  • B. To demonstrate that height is dependent on geographical location
  • C. To contrast the difference in height between early farmers and foragers
  • D. To point out the similarities to remains found in China and in other parts of Europe

4. According to the professor, what was a possible result of the selective breeding of crop plants?

  • A. The plants became more resistant to heat and cold
  • B. The plants became more vulnerable to disease
  • C. Crop plants quickly became the only source of food
  • D. The plants required more water to grow

5. What is the professor’s attitude toward the classification of ancient people as either foragers or farmers?

  • A. She believes that such classifications have generally been accurate
  • B. She doubts that any new evidence could challenge the classification
  • C. She worries that present-day archaeologists are not considering key evidence
  • D. She believes the evidence now indicates that the situation was more complex

6. Why does the professor mention irrigation?

  • A. To explain why early farming often required large amounts of land
  • B. To demonstrate how farming methods have changed over time
  • C. To support her point about farming providing a great quantity of food
  • D. To explain how the Chinese were able to cultivate rice so early

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